mis à jour le

جواب على استفسار حول كتاب الأستاذ يوسف الص

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????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? (Wensinck? Jeffery? Lidzbarski? Dyroff? Vollers? Hartmann? Friedländer…) ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?????? (???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????)? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????- ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?”?????”- ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??????. ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? “????? ?????” ????? “????” (18: 60 ?62) ????? ???? ??? ???? ????. ?????? ???? ????? ?? anèr (????? ??????? andros) ?????? ??????/?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????/??????? ?? ??????/????? (4: 25 ?????? 12: 30 ?36 ?62? 21: 60? 24: 33 ?????)? ??? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???? (“???”: ?? 24: 13? 33: 11? ??? 11: 2? ???? 1: 1) ???????? (“???”: ?? 33: 11)? ???70 ?parestèkos/therapôn/upourgos ?neos? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?anèr ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? (???? ?? ??? ??????: “???” 2: 13? 17: 9? 18: 21×2 ?25? 21: 18 ?22 ?28 ?29? 22: 31? 32: 28? 35: 22 ?29? 36: 6? “???” 10: 11 ?12: 37? “???” 21: 22? “???” ??? ?????? ?? 38: 22? 39: 2 ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????)? ????? ?? ????? ?????? 215 ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?man (156) ?husband (50) ?sir (6) ?fellow (1) ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???? neanis/neanias ?neaniskos? ?????? ????/????/??? pais (???????? paidiskè). ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???? ??????? “?????” ?? “?????”. ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? (7: 20? 20: 120). ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? “??????” ?? ?????. ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????. ???? ?? ???? 17: 24-27 ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? “??? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? (:???? ??????) ???? ????? ???? ????” ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????. ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????. ??????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? (9: 84 ?114? 11: 12 ?46 ?75?? 17: 74?? 23: 27? 28: 56? 69: 44??? 72: 26??…)- ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? “?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????” (????? 34: 10) ?????? ?????? ????? (“??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????”) ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???????. ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ?? “?????? ??? ???????”? ?????? ??? ?????? “????? ??? ???????” ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? (380-454/990-1062) ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????/?????. ??? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? 3 ?. ?? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? 3 ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???????. ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????????- ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????- ?? ??? ?????? ????????? ????.

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???? ??????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? (“?? ?? ???? ???. ???? ??????. ?? ??? ??? ????. ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???”) ?? ??????? 8 ?? ????? ??????? “?? ????????” (Peri Phuseo) ??? ???? ??????/????? ???? ???????: ??? ????? (agenèton) ??? ???? (anôlethron)? ??????????/???? (oulon/oulomeles) ???? ???? (atremes) ??? ????/????? (ateleston)? ????? (anarchon) ?????? (apauston)… ????? ???????? ????????. ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? (kosmos? ???????- ????? ?? ????????- ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????)? ??????? ????? ??? ??? (????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????- ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? Nux). ????? “???” ???? ??????? (112? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? 22 ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????) ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ????? (325 ?) ???????? ????????: ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?”??? ????? ???” (42: 11)? ?”??? ??? ???? ???? ????” (28: 88) ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? “??????” ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ?????. ???? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? (??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????????)? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????- ??? “???” ????????. ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????- ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????.

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???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? (17: 22-39) ?? ???? ?? “????????” ????? ??????????? ??? ?????. ????? ????????? ?? ???????? (?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????) ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? “???” ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? “??????????” ?”??????????” ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? (107: 2-4? 90: 13-17? 92: 17-20? 93: 9?)? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? (30: 38? 51: 19? 70: 24?)? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????.

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???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????. ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? 1972 ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????.
?? ??? ????? ??? anthrôpos ????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? gunè ?gunaika ???? ?????????? ????? ???????? (??? ?? ?????????)!
?? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????: “????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????” ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????. ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???. ???? ????: ??? ?? ???? ????(?) ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? “????” ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????.
???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ???????? (?? 3: 22-24). ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ????????. ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??????. ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? (28: 88? ????? 55: 26?) ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????. ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????. ?? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??????: ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? (???????? ?? ??????).
?? ???? ??? ??? ??????? (208-281/823-894) ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? (??? ?????? ????????? 327-384/938-993)? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? (323-410/934-1025) ???? ????? (“??????? ?? ????? ????????”). ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?? 5 ???? ??? ???? ??? ????. ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????. ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? 3 ? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? (??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????). ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????. ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????. ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?????. ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????. ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????. ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????? (?????). ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ??????: ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????.
????? ???? ????? (??? ????? ??????) ?????? ??????. ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? 7 ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????. ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??????. ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? 13 ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???????. ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? 7 ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????. ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? (3: 8) ??????.
??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? (?? 20: 7) ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? (12: 11-20) ??????? ?? ????? (26: 1-11)? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? 20 ???? ?????? (?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????). ???? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?”?????????” ??? ???.
??? ???? ?????? “????” ???? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???/???? ??????? ?? ??????????? palatium ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ????????.
???? “??????” ?????? ??? ??????? ?? “?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????”. ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????.
?? ????? ??? “???” ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? (= esse? être? to be? zu sein? …) ????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (???????? ?? ?????????)? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ????? copula ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? “???” ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? “???”? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? “???” ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? “????? ????????? ?? ???”? ?????? ???????????? ?”????? ?? ??? ??????”). ???? ??????????? (?? ?? ??? ?????) ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????????.
“???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????… ???????? ?????”- ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????1 5: 7? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? (??? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ????).
????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? “????” ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? (42 ????????? ???????? ???????? 50 ??? ?????? ?????????? ?66 ?67 ??? ??????)? ?? ???? ??? ???????? (25: 23-74): ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? (???? ???) ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? (6: 151?) ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????: ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????.
???? ??????? ????? ?? ?? 20: 2-17 ?????? 5: 6-21 ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? (“?? ????. ?? ???. ?? ????. ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???. ?? ???? ??? ?????. ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????”)? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? (????????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????) ???? ???? (?????) ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? “??????” ?? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? 7 ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? (?? 9: 4-6)? ?????? 7 ?? 10 ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????.
??? ??? ??? ??? ???? “??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????”? ????? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? “?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???” ?????: “??????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????????”. ??? ???? “????? ???????” ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? 52 ???? “???? ???”? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? (?? ?????) ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?????: “??? ???? ???? ????? ??????/ ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????”?
98 : 2? “???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?????”? 52: 1-3 “???????. ????? ?????. ?? ??? ?????”? 85: 21? “?? ?? ???? ????. ?? ??? ?????” ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? “?????” (????? ????? ???? ???????)? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? “?????? ???????” ?? ???? ??? ????. ????? ?? ????: “????? ???? ???? ???????/ ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????”.

Nawaat

Ses derniers articles: Peut-on (encore) se passer des banques au quotidien en Tunisie?  En Tunisie, le "plus grand drapeau au monde" ne fait pas l’unanimité  Tunisie-Union européenne: une mise sous tutelle déguisée